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Published March 19, 2016 Updated February 20, 2024
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Versionaire

13.1.0

Ruby doesn’t provide a primitive version type by default so Versionaire fills this gap by providing immutable and thread-safe Strict Semantic Versioning so you can leverage versions within your applications. This new Version type behaves and feels a lot like other primitives (i.e. String, Array, Hash, Proc, etc) and can be cast/converted from other primitives.

Features

  • Provides Strict Semantic Versioning which means <major>.<minor>.<patch>.

  • Provides immutable, thread-safe version instances.

  • Converts (casts) from a String, Array, Hash, Proc, or Version to a Version.

  • Disallows <major>.<minor>.<patch>-<pre-release> usage even though Semantic Versioning suggests you may use pre-release information.

  • Disallows <major>.<minor>.<patch>+<build_metadata> usage even though Semantic Versioning suggests you may use build metadata.

Requirements

  1. Ruby.

Setup

To install with security, run:

# 💡 Skip this line if you already have the public certificate installed.
gem cert --add <(curl --compressed --location https://alchemists.io/gems.pem)
gem install versionaire --trust-policy HighSecurity

To install without security, run:

gem install versionaire

You can also add the gem directly to your project:

bundle add versionaire

Once the gem is installed, you only need to require it:

require "versionaire"

Usage

Initialization

A new version can be initialized in a variety of ways:

Versionaire::Version.new                            # "0.0.0"
Versionaire::Version[major: 1]                      # "1.0.0"
Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2]            # "1.2.0"
Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3]  # "1.2.3"

Equality

Value (#==)

Equality is determined by the state of the object. This means that a version is equal to another version as long as all of the values (i.e. state) are equal to each other. Example:

version_a = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]
version_b = Versionaire::Version[major: 2]
version_c = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]

version_a == version_a  # true
version_a == version_b  # false
version_a == version_c  # true

Knowing this, versions can be compared against one another too:

version_a > version_b                    # false
version_a < version_b                    # true
version_a.between? version_c, version_b  # true

Hash (#eql?)

Behaves exactly as #==.

Case (#===)

Behaves exactly as #==.

Identity (#equal?)

Works like any other standard Ruby object where an object is equal only to itself.

version_a = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]
version_b = Versionaire::Version[major: 2]
version_c = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]

version_a.equal? version_a  # true
version_a.equal? version_b  # false
version_a.equal? version_c  # false

Conversions

Function

Use the Versionaire::Version function to explicitly cast to a version:

version = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]

Versionaire::Version "1.0.0"
Versionaire::Version [1, 0, 0]
Versionaire::Version major: 1, minor: 0, patch: 0
Versionaire::Version version

Each of these conversions will result in a version object that represents “1.0.0”.

When attempting to convert an unsupported type, a Versionaire::Error exception will be thrown.

Refinement

Building upon the above examples, a more elegant solution is to use a refinement:

using Versionaire::Cast

version = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]

Version "1.0.0"
Version [1, 0, 0]
Version major: 1, minor: 0, patch: 0
Version version

By adding using Versionaire::Cast to your implementation, this allows Versionaire to refine Kernel so you have a top-level Version conversion function much like Kernel’s native support for Integer, String, Array, Hash, etc. The benefit to this approach is to reduce the amount of typing so you don’t pollute your entire object space, like a monkey patch, while providing an idiomatic approach to casting like any other primitive.

Implicit

Implicit conversion to a String is supported:

"1.0.0".match Versionaire::Version[major: 1]  # <MatchData "1.0.0">

Explicit

Explicit conversion to a String, Array, Hash, or Proc is supported:

version = Versionaire::Version.new

version.to_s     # "0.0.0"
version.to_a     # [0, 0, 0]
version.to_h     # {major: 0, minor: 0, patch: 0}
version.to_proc  # #<Proc:0x000000010b015b88 (lambda)>

To elaborate on procs, this means the following is possible where you might want to collect all minor verions values or make use of version information in other useful ways:

using Versionaire::Cast

version = Version "1.2.3"

version.to_proc.call :major               # 1
[version, version, version].map(&:minor)  # [2, 2, 2]

Inspections

You can inspect a version which is the equivalent of an escaped string representation. Example:

using Versionaire::Cast

Version("1.2.3").inspect  # "\"1.2.3\""

Comparisons

All versions are comparable which means any of the operators from the Comparable module will work. Example:

version_1 = Versionaire::Version "1.0.0"
version_2 = Versionaire::Version "2.0.0"

version_1 < version_2                    # true
version_1 <= version_2                   # true
version_1 == version_2                   # false (see Equality section above for details)
version_1 > version_2                    # false
version_1 >= version_2                   # false
version_1.between? version_1, version_2  # true
version_1.clamp version_1, version_2     # version_1 (added in Ruby 2.4.0)

Bumping

Versions can be bumped to next logical version with respect current version. Example:

version = Versionaire::Version.new  # #<struct Versionaire::Version major=0, minor=0, patch=0>
version.bump :major                 # #<struct Versionaire::Version major=1, minor=0, patch=0>
version.bump :minor                 # #<struct Versionaire::Version major=0, minor=1, patch=0>
version.bump :patch                 # #<struct Versionaire::Version major=0, minor=0, patch=1>

Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3].bump :major
#<struct Versionaire::Version major=2, minor=0, patch=0>

Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3].bump :minor
#<struct Versionaire::Version major=1, minor=3, patch=0>

Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3].bump :patch
#<struct Versionaire::Version major=1, minor=2, patch=4>

You’ll notice, when bumping the major or minor versions, lower precision gets zeroed out in order to provide the next logical version.

Math

Versions can be added, subtracted, sequentially increased, or sequentially decreased from each other.

Addition

Versions can be added together to produce a resulting version sum.

version_1 = Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3]
version_2 = Versionaire::Version[major: 2, minor: 5, patch: 7]
version_1 + version_2  # "3.7.10"

Subtraction

Versions can be substracted from each other as long as there isn’t a negative result.

version_1 = Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 2, patch: 3]
version_2 = Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 1, patch: 1]
version_1 - version_2  # "0.1.2"

version_1 = Versionaire::Version[major: 1]
version_2 = Versionaire::Version[major: 5]
version_1 - version_2  # Versionaire::Error

Up

Versions can be sequentially increased or given a specific version to jump to.

version = Versionaire::Version[major: 1, minor: 1, patch: 1]
version.up :major     # => "2.1.1"
version.up :major, 3  # => "4.1.1"
version.up :minor     # => "1.2.1"
version.up :minor, 3  # => "1.4.1"
version.up :patch     # => "1.1.2"
version.up :patch, 3  # => "1.1.4"

Down

Versions can be sequentially decreased or given a specific version to jump to as long as the result is not negative.

version = Versionaire::Version[major: 5, minor: 5, patch: 5]
version.down :major     # => "4.5.5"
version.down :major, 3  # => "2.5.5"
version.down :minor     # => "5.4.5"
version.down :minor, 3  # => "5.2.5"
version.down :patch     # => "5.5.4"
version.down :patch, 3  # => "5.5.2"
version.down :major, 6  # => Versionaire::Error

Extensions

This project supports libraries which might desire native Version types. Each extension must be explicitly required in order to be used since they are optional by default. See below for details.

OptionParser

OptionParser is one of Ruby’s default gems which can accept additional types not native to Ruby by default. To extend OptionParser with the Version type, all you need to do is add these two lines to your implementation:

  1. require "versionaire/extensions/option_parser": This will load dependencies and register the Version type with OptionParser.

  2. act.on "--tag VERSION", Versionaire::Version: Specifying Versionaire::Version as the second argument will ensure OptionParser properly casts command line input as a Version type.

Here’s an example implementation that demonstrates full usage:

require "versionaire/extensions/option_parser"

options = {}

parser = OptionParser.new do |act|
  act.on "--tag VERSION", Versionaire::Version, "Casts to version." do |value|
    options[:version] = value
  end
end

parser.parse %w[--tag 1.2.3]
puts options

The above will ensure --tag 1.2.3 is parsed as {version: #<struct Versionaire::Version major = 1, minor = 2, patch = 3>} within your options variable. Should OptionParser parse an invalid version, you’ll get a OptionParser::InvalidArgument instead.

Development

To contribute, run:

git clone https://github.com/bkuhlmann/versionaire
cd versionaire
bin/setup

You can also use the IRB console for direct access to all objects:

bin/console

Tests

To test, run:

bin/rake

Credits